For the last two decades, GIS technologies have increasingly been used to incorporate not only spatial relationships but also analyzing and visualizing space across time. Spatial-temporal GIS, or 4D GIS, has, in particular, become essential in areas where GIS is needed for predicting dimensions across time.
Spatialtemporal visualization are ways to illustrate changes in an area over time on a map. The famous geographer Immanuel Kant maintained that geography was the study of knowledge in a location, while history was the study of knowledge in time. This article explores different cartographic methods of showing changes in time over space on a map.