MongoDB

Query result of GTS spatial data in mongoDB. From: Zhang, Song, & Liu, 2014.

GIS and NoSQL Databases

Relational databases present some limitations to scaling, preventing or limiting the applicability of big data and real-time data problems utilized within GIS. More and more GIS software companies and developers are adopting NoSQL formats where data retrieval is generally faster and easier to structure. NoSQL also facilitates analysis and integration within a variety of tools, which is why open source GIS has proven to be the most useful arena for NoSQL databases.