Bayesian is a belief network that is a probabilistic graphical model that deals with reasoning under uncertainty (e.g. determining the probabilities of a disease based on the symptoms).

Map of global travel times.

4D GIS and Prediction

For the last two decades, GIS technologies have increasingly been used to incorporate not only spatial relationships but also analyzing and visualizing space across time. Spatial-temporal GIS, or 4D GIS, has, in particular, become essential in areas where GIS is needed for predicting dimensions across time.