There are more high resolution maps of the Moon and Mars, than the seafloor. Largely because of high costs and challenges at every stage of data gathering and processing. However, GIS-driven technological innovations have the power to change this with improved navigation and positioning systems and geoprocessing in real time for faster accurate surveys.
The Smart City model uses robust GIS for building urban resilience. The GIS framework seamlessly integrates with other technologies supporting visualization and analysis in real time. This becomes the mainstay of ‘smart’ management providing resource optimization, open and participatory governance and efficient management of city infrastructure.