User context, location, and profile interests are integrated with personalized GIS to display adaptive profiles. From: Aoidh et. al, 2009.

Personalized GIS

In the world of personalized GIS, software being developed that can adapt to our behaviors and know what we need before having to request it or it can give us recommendations based on what tastes we have or have had in the past or based on others’ preferences.

Map of global travel times.

4D GIS and Prediction

For the last two decades, GIS technologies have increasingly been used to incorporate not only spatial relationships but also analyzing and visualizing space across time. Spatial-temporal GIS, or 4D GIS, has, in particular, become essential in areas where GIS is needed for predicting dimensions across time.

Query result of GTS spatial data in mongoDB. From: Zhang, Song, & Liu, 2014.

GIS and NoSQL Databases

Relational databases present some limitations to scaling, preventing or limiting the applicability of big data and real-time data problems utilized within GIS. More and more GIS software companies and developers are adopting NoSQL formats where data retrieval is generally faster and easier to structure. NoSQL also facilitates analysis and integration within a variety of tools, which is why open source GIS has proven to be the most useful arena for NoSQL databases.