With the utility of R, many popular statistical procedures and more advanced analyses, including a variety of simulation applications, can be applied directly within GIS tools such as QGIS.
Similar to the semantic web, techniques have been created for GIS, where finding and applying geospatial data requires protocols and standards that allow the large variety of data to be more easily searched.
Earlier studies in GIS were particularly focused on analyzing safe transportation that looked at where the safest routes might be in the transportation of radioactive materials. More recent studies have utilized the analytical capabilities in GIS for quantifying risk in the storage of radioactive materials.
Landscape archaeology is a discipline where space is critical to understanding ancient settlements and human use of ancient space. The use of GIS is steadily growing as a tool in this field.