The use of extracting data from old paper maps is growing in popularity as a method to understanding historical geography. David Ramsey popularized the method of georectifying historical maps and draping those maps over a DEM to create a 3D view. Pastmapper is a project that digitizes historical maps in order to recreate the state of cities over the course of one year intervals. Historical GIS is also used to compare changes in a geographic area over time by comparing data extracted from maps covering a range of years. With free applications like Harvard’s WorldMap Warp, uploading and georeferencing maps is easier than ever.
Finding scanned historical maps can be a bit cumbersome. Now, the site Old Maps Online, has made finding those maps a whole lot easier. Old Maps Online is a portal that allows the user to search geographically for historical maps housed via some of the largest online map collections. Current collections include the David Ramsey Collection, the British Library, the Moravian Library, and the National Library of Scotland. Collections from around the world will continue to be added throughout 2012. All collections added are from sites that offer high resolution historical scanned maps that have been already georeferenced and are viewable online without requiring logins or payments from the viewer. OldMapsOnline is a collaborative project between The Great Britain Historical GIS Project based at The University of Portsmouth, UK and Klokan Technologies GmbH, Switzerland.
The map component of the search interfaced is stylized to evoke the feeling of looking at an old map with grainy features. Searching for historical maps can be done either by typing in a place name or adjusting the zoom and pan levels on the map itself. The publication dates of the maps can be limited by adjusting the slider scale underneath the text box to set the upper and lower limits of the years to search within. Any returned results for the geography and time interval are displayed on the right hand side of the map. Clicking on a map result opens up a window with preliminary information about the map subject, date, and what online collection it is housed in. Click on that window to access the direct URL of the scanned map at the online map collection.
The challenge can come in finding maps specific to your area of research. Cities by nature are constantly evolving, and buildings and roads have changed tremendously over time. If your research requires mapping Baltimore from the 1860s, Denver from the 1890s, or even Houston from the1960s, you’re going to need a very specific type of map. Listed below are some pointers to some of the more popular places to finding historical maps.
The first place to look for a city map is the obvious low-tech destination: the library. Municipal libraries usually have a wide collection of civic maps, many modeled after the “Plan of City X” style used by cartographers a century ago. These maps are a great place to start and can be incredibly informative. However, many of them are not digitally available, making them difficult to use for more advanced mapping applications.
Maps from the United States Geological Survey are incredibly helpful to researchers. Taken over the course of many decades and including aerial views and well as traditional street maps, the USGS are often your best option when covering a metropolitan area outside of its downtown core. The USGS recently started making available over 120 years of mapping history, with its Historical Topo Map program along with a whole range of mapping products.
David Ramsey Map Collection
The David Rumsey Map Collection contains over 150,000 maps with over 27,000 maps available online. The maps range in age dating back to the 1700s up to the 1950s. Maps can be viewed online and downloaded via the LUNA browser. The site offers a range of other search and viewing options including Google Earth, Second Life, and 2D and 3D mapping applications.
Accessible at the website historicaerials.com, this program takes data from a range of government sources – USGS included. Consequently, it is one of the most comprehensive out there. Since it functions like Google Maps it is also one of the easiest to search, and the ability to toggle between past and present-day views allows the researcher to zoom in on a very focused area. Be wary, however: this service usually does not offer the best quality.
These maps were made by the Sanborn Fire Insurance companyaround the turn of the past century, and they cover large portions of America’s major cities from the time. These maps are incredibly unique in that they show a drawn “bird’s eye” view of every neighborhood, replete with streets and extensive building details. Finding access to these maps online can be challenging, if your local library has a subscription, the ProQuest Digital Sanborn Collection would be the best place to find these maps.
Library of Congress
The Library of Congress (LOC) has a page called Map Collections which provides access to those maps from the LOC Geography and Maps collection that are available online. The LOC also offers a guide to its Geography and Maps collection.
If your mapping takes you into a small-scale and historical field, hopefully these suggestions can be of use. While finding an historical map is certainly more difficult than locating a present-day one, there are many resources out there that can help further your quest.
Big Map Blog
This site hosts a large online collection of ultra-high-definition historical maps with more than 2,700 available. All maps are in the public domain, and are provided as a full-resolution download at no cost. Prints can also be ordered of maps.
British Library Launches Crowdsourcing Map Georeferencing Program
The British Library has launched a pilot project to engage the public’s help in geoferencing historical maps. A sample of 725 maps of England and Wales from the 18th and 19th century (from the Ordnance Survey Drawings, 1780-1840) along with with large-scale street plans of London from 1560 to 1860 (from the the Crace Collection) have been selected for this project.
From Kimberly C. Kowal, the Lead Curator, Digital Mapping of the British Library:
The technology is an an upgraded version of Klokan Technologies initial georeferencing software (such as that implemented at the National Library of Scotland). Features surrounding management of metadata and images are improved, as is the overall user experience (base maps, registration, gazetteers), but most significantly, crowdsourcing tools to encourage participation have been developed. The inclusion of means by which participants can immediately see what they and others have contributed to the project has been a real incentive and has made this an engaging tool to explore historic mapping.
Should the crowdsourcing georeferencing effort be successful, the curators at the British Library hope to make more map collections available via geographic search. The project will run from February 2012 to January 2013. Visit the geoferencing page at the British Library to learn more about participating in the project and to browse a map of georeferenced maps.
Started back in 1995 by Roelof Oddens, the curator of the map Library of the Faculty of GeoSciences at the University of Utrecht (The Netherlands), Oddens’ Bookmarks is a phenomenal collection of links to maps and mapping on the Internet. Now with over 220,000 links, visitors to this site can search by keyword, country and category. You can also explore what’s in the extensive database by browsing through the links to the right of the homepage.